Muslims in India vs. Hindus in Pakistan

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Difference between Muslims in India and Hindus in Pakistan

In the Republic of India, Hinduism is the religion practiced by most people, after that the second most common religion practiced is Islam. Muslims have played an integral part in the history of India and its rich culture and heritage. Be it through early trade, and even through invasion (eg: Mughal era), the religious community has contributed to India’s progress, culture and most importantly to India’s freedom movement against the British.

Muslims in India
Hindus in Pakistan

The Partition

In the overall context of an undivided India, the Muslims of India broadly conducted their politics alongside other groups in the country until the 1930s. However, with time there occurred frequent conflicts, riots and misunderstandings, partly due to the British “divide and rule” policy. The concept of a separate Muslim homeland within India was first introduced by Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal in the 1930s. It was a result of the increasing differences between the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League. This demand was raised in Lahore in 1940. However, when the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League could not agree on a common path to independence from the British colonial government, the All India Muslim League pressed explicitly with its demand for a completely independent and sovereign country — Pakistan. In the fight for partition during 1947, over one million people lost their lives in bloody violence. So many others had to leave their ancestral homes in haste on the eve of August 14, 1947.


In August 1947, at the end of British Raj, the population percentage of Hindus in what is today in Pakistan was perhaps as high as 15-20%, but would drop to its current total of less than 2% in the years since independence. Though Muslims in India form a minority group, India's Muslim population is the world's largest Muslim-minority population. Most of the Muslims in India belong to Indian ethnic groups, with minor to obvious levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Persia and Central Asia.

Socio-Economic Status

Following all the major socio-economic indicators, the members of India’s biggest religious minority are lower in standing than the rest of the population. The incidence of poverty in India is higher among the Muslims than the Hindus. Their literacy rated is lower too. Various political parties have been accused of appeasement on these grounds. However, the sex ratio among Muslims is better than among the Hindus in India.

Since Pakistan declared itself to be an Islamic nation, Hindus as a minority in Pakistan have had considerably fewer privileges, rights and protections in comparison to minorities in India, which is constitutionally a secular nation that gives equal rights to its religious minoritiesthat includes Muslims, Sikhs and Christian communities.

Similarities and Differences

  • Whilst Hindus have declined in number in Pakistan, Muslims have remained more or less steady since the time of partition.
  • Pakistani Hindus seem to be average in terms of economic status but their constitutional status is insecure. Muslims are not very well off economically, but their presence as a minority is large in India and they are constitutionally protected.

Which group of Muslims is more peaceful?
  • Muslims in India
  • Hindus in Pakistan

comments 1 Comments

  • guest . 3+ yrs. ago

Obviously, that 64% is totally clueless about the spate of Muslim terrorist attacks on Hindus and other religious minorities over the last few years within India. Not to mention the anti-Hindu rioting in Muslim-majority parts of India. Then there is that conflict in Kashmir which is Indian territory but claimed by the Pakistan backed Muslim insurgents. That said,most Muslims in India are peaceful, more so than Muslims in Pakistan.The question should compare Muslims in India to Muslims in Talibanland Pakistan.

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