Difference between Animal Cells and Plant Cells
Cell is the functional and structural unit of life for both plants and animals. Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells. They are complex in their nature and structure. They bundle up to crate tissues which serve particular purposes in different plants and animals. Most plant and animal cells are not visible to naked eye.As far as structural and functional specifications are concerned, they vary a lot. Still they have several similarities. Plant cells were discovered first. From experimentation on animal cells, scientists have found that each cell arises from pre-existing cells.
Nucleus is present in both plant and animal cells. As eukaryotic cells, they have the true nucleus.You can find ribosomes- the site of protein synthesis in both animal and plant cells. Endoplasmic reticulum is also present in both of them. They have microfilaments like Golgi bodies. Mitochondria is the powerhouse for both animal and plant cells. Mitochondria store ATP that is created in both plant and animals after synthesis of food. They contain cytoplasm. Cell membrane or the plasma membrane is common in both of them. This membrane is semi permeable and ensures passage of essential minerals from and to the cell.
Cilia, Vacuole and Cell wall
Although the basic construction of animal and plant cells is pretty similar, there are certain differences also. Cilium is present in animal cells, but in plant cells, its occurrence is very rare. Vacuoles might be present in animals. If present, they are multiple smaller vacuoles. But in plant cell, there is one large vacuole. Plant cell has both cell wall and cell membrane. In animal cell, cell wall is absent. Due to presence of chloroplasts in plant cells, plants can synthesis their own food. But chloroplasts are not present in animal cells. Centrioles are present in lower numbers in plant cells. But in animal cells, their number is higher. Creation of cell plate ensures cell division in plant cell. For this purpose, cleavage furrow is created in animal cells. Lysosomes are only present in animal cell. Animal cell Golgi bodies are more complex compared to plant cell counterparts.
Plant cells can be classified in three types. They are parenchyma cells, collenchymas cells and the sclerenchyma cells. Function of parenchyma cells are helping in storage, photosynthesis. Collenchymas cells have primary cell wall and appear only at the phase of cell maturity. Sclerenchyma cells provide the mechanical support to the plant. Types of cells in animals are very complex. Studies have found that there are at least 210 distinct varieties of animal cell each having a distinct functionality.
Similarities and Differences
- Unchecked growth of animal cells creates disorders like cancer, which is unlikely to happen in plant cells.
- Plant cells are capable of turning carbon dioxide to sugar and the reverse process happens in animal cell. Here, sugar is broken down to carbon dioxide for emission of energy required for body.
This is a great example of required cyclic function between plant and animal cells for a peaceful coexistence of ecosystem.