Difference between Indian RAW and Pakistan ISI
A lack of proper intelligence was noticed after India faced war with Pakistan in 1965. The Indian External Intelligence Agency known as RAW (Research and Analysis Wing), was formed in 1968. RAW mainly collects external intelligence regarding acts against terrorism and even advises Indian foreign policymakers. ISI (inter-services Intelligence) is the major intelligence agency in Pakistan and was basically set up to strengthen Pakistan’s military intelligence in 1948. Before the ISI was formed as an independent unit, it was a part of Pakistan’s Intelligence Bureau. It had its headquarters in Rawalpindi at the time of establishment but later was shifted to Islamabad.
Before RAW came into existence all the intelligence was handled by a body called Intelligence Bureau (IB) which was established by the British. After India faced two consecutive wars in 1962 and 1965, failure in the field of intelligence was exposed. In 1966, the idea of a separate intelligence agency took shape and was implemented in 1968 under the leadership Mrs. Indira Gandhi. At the time of independence in 1947, Pakistan created two major intelligence agencies; IB and Military Intelligence (MI). After the failure of MI in a 1947 dispute, a newer well-organized agency called the Inter-Services Intelligence came into existence. It contained officials from all the three military wings which are the Army, Navy and Air Force.
The major objectives of RAW include gathering information about the military and political developments in adjoining nations and monitoring the international public opinion with the help of Indians scattered throughout the world. After the indo-Pakistan war, one of the objectives was to limit the supply of military equipments to Pakistan from European nations, America and more importantly from China. ISI focuses on information gathering by both secret and open means but aggressive techniques are also employed. ISI is known to work on counterintelligence and in making relations with foreign intelligence agencies. A 2010 report based on interviews with Taliban commanders in Afghanistan, revealed to an interviewer that the ISI not only has direct links to the Taliban but the ISI opts for an "official policy" for funding, training and supporting the Taliban. Even the Quetta Shura, who represents the leadership for the Taliban is believed to meet in Pakistan. This poses several serious questions that have yet to be answered.
Some of the major RAW operations include ELINT which was carried out in collaboration with the CIA to track the progress of China in the nuclear developments field. It played a vital role in the formation of Bangladesh. Operation Chanakya was carried out under the supervision of RAW in Kashmir against terrorism in which it was successful in splitting the terrorist group Hizb-ul–Mujahidin. ISI has carried out major operations in India and Afghanistan. ISI helped the Sikh movement in Punjab which aimed to succeed in the formation of Khalistan. ISI is also blamed for its secret support to militant groups in Kashmir region against the Indian government.
- Established in 1968
- Before RAW, Intelligence Bureau carried out all the operations
- Information gathering and monitoring international public opinion are some major objectives
- After Indo-Pakistan war it aimed at limiting military supply to Pakistan
- Operations like ELINT and Chanakya were carried out by RAW
- Current headquarters in Islamabad
- It was created after the failure of MI (Military Intelligence)
- Counterintelligence and making relations with other agencies fall into its objectives category
- Its major operations are carried out in India and Afghanistan
- In 2010, according Wikipedia, the ISI has been linked to Taliban as the meeting place of the Taliban’s leadership and as a source for funding, training and support.