Spartans vs. Persians

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Difference between Spartans and Persians

Spartans were famous in ancient Greek culture for their valor and chivalry. Contrary to popular belief, all citizens of Sparta were not Spartans. Only those who followed ‘Agoge' or Sparta's educational regimen were known as Spartans. Being the inhabitants of a military state, war and warship was associated with Spartan life from birth to death. After birth, the child was subject to wine bath to test his/her strength.  Persians are the people whose mother tongue is Persian language. Persian word is popularly referred to part of Iranians. There are several sub-groups of Persians. These people have an eclectic artistic heritage.



Battle of Thermopylae is one of the decisive wars in the history of both Spartans and Persians. In this battle, Sparta led the alliance of Greece city states. This was the second time Persians were invading Greece. Their first attempt was a failure. Fought in 480 BC,   Persians were the victors of Battle of Thermopylae. No doubt, Persians in this battle killed every one of the fighting enemies but the resistance offered by Greeks is praiseworthy. Hence, many historians re of the view that Battle of Thermopylae war won by Persians but the Greeks were the winners of the battle.  For the first time, Greeks fought united.


Both Persians and Spartans have several legendary kings.  Leonidas, the famous Spartan king ruled around 5th century BC. He is famous for his military skills and warship. Under his leadership, Battle of Thermopylae was fought. Herodotus has highly appreciated Leonidas. When asked a choice between his life and Destruction of Sparta, he wanted the safety of his state. Other famous kings of Sparta are Anaxander, Anaxandridas, Cleomenes and Pleistarchus. Darius was a famous Persian king. He successfully handled the civil war that broke during his accession. He constructed roads, buildings and several canals. He is one of the most benevolent kings of Persian history. Xerxes I succeeded Darius.


Religion was a major binding force behind the unity of Spartans. Every political and social institution of Sparta was associated with a specific God. Dioscuri Castor and Pollux are two famous mythological warriors of Sparta. Along with, they also worshiped Apollo Larneios and Apollo Chalkioikos. Unlike other parts of Greece, Hephaestus was not worshipped in Sparta. They worshipped Helen, Leucippide and Lykourgos also.  Ancient Persians were the worshippers of nature. After the advent of Aryans, they started worshipping several gods and goddesses. Among them AHURA-MAZDA was the god of wisdom. ATAR was the god of fire. VERETHRAGNA was the war god of Persians. Anahita was the goddess of hallucination powers.


  • Both Spartan and Persian culture contributed significantly to the enrichment of world civilization.
  • Spartan's unity, warfare and war management inspired many military leaders of the succeeding time.
  • Persians' contribution towards language and world literature is noteworthy.  Human rights and domestic mail delivery were also introduced by the Persians.  Even today, you can find scores of English words having their root in Persian languages.  Persians made several significant contributions in the fields of algebra, medicine and geometry.

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